Kayah | Kayin |
Chin | Mon |
Rakhine | Shan |
According to the historical evidences of China, in AD
350, the Tibeto-Burman, Mon-Khamar and Thai-Chinese have
dwelled in the area now called Myanmar. Some Myanmar entered
from the Kantsu Province, Athan and Yunnan Province of
China. Along the journey, about AD 800 and AD 794, Bhamar
had attacked by the Nankyaung so that subsequently moved to
the Minbu, Kyaukse and the other places where the
Ayeyarwaddy and other mighty rivers flow. Those people
comprise of one hundred and thirty five different tribes.
Among them, there are the main eight major ethnics, namely;
Kachin, Kayah, Kayin, Chin, Bhamar, Mon, Rakhine and Shan.
Bhamar are 69 percent of the total population.
are originated from Tata Chinese and called them Jinphaws.
Those people have many own dialects and alphabets. The major
Kachin tribal groups are Jinphaw, Maru, Lashi, Azee, Rawang
and Lesu. Their language would be varied and different
depending on the region. Bhamaw, Moehnyin, Moekaung,
Khattcho and Waingmaw are important ancient cities of the
Kachin history. Putao, Sunprabon, Myitkyina, Kamine and
Phakant are famous for unique nature and culture. Their
belief and customary have influenced all over the Kachin
people such as astrology, palmistry and other do’s and
don’ts of the ethnical conservation. Kachin have their
famous and magnificent festivals like various Manaw
Festivals. These are as followed.
Padan Manaw: It is held for the conquest of the wars.
2) Suut Manaw: It is held for wealthy and friendship.
3) Juu Manaw: It is held for illness and after the death of
old relative ages.
4) Kwanran Manaw: It is held when a member of the household
established a new land so that they inform to the King of
5) Shaditphawt Manaw: It is held in order to against all
evils from the new land and showing the King of Spirit,
In addition, there are many Manaw Festivals to hold for the
various purposes despite over hundred of spirits exist which
offer to major 18 spirits and of course the King of Spirit,
Kayah are descendants of Tibeto-Burman and Kayin. Formerly,
called them Red Kayin comprising Gebar, Gekho, Kayan, Maye,
Manumanao, Yinbao and Yintale dwell in the smallest state of
Myanmar, the Kayah State. The capital city is Loikaw and
other major cities are Demawso, Pruso, Balake, Phasaung,
Mesenan and Shataw. The Kayah believe that they are directly
derived from Keinnery and Keinnara, the mythical bird couple
which are half bird and half human being. That is why, a
mark of those bird couple is a land mark of Kayah State.
Although Kaya State is the smallest in Myanmar, there are
some kinds of tribe, namely, Kayah, Geko, Gebar, Paye,
Marumanaw, Inther and Bhamar in their State. The most
important instrument of magic for their Kala festival is a
Farsi (drum). Buffalos, Cows, Pigs, especially chickens,
bees and silkworm are their domestic animals.
the Kayah that live in Shan hills and Kayah State, many of
Padaung women still adhere to old custom that must surely
uncomfortable. From the age of five, they can choose to
permanently wear brass coils around their neck and more
added as they grow older. Similar brass rings are also
coiled around their legs, making it difficult for them to
walk or sit with ease. It is described in many tourist guide
books as Giraffe Women and that is really improper so that
can be called women with a long elegant neck or the ladies
of the ring.
now called Kayin State is the state of Kayin people. It is
from north to south 325 miles, the widest part of east to
west is 70 miles and total area is 11730 square miles.
Bhamar, Kayin, Kayah, Pa O, Mon, Shan and many other
different tribes resided in the Kayin State. The main Kayin
tribal groups would be two. These are Poe Kayin and Sakaw
Kayin. According to the region, there are different dialects
such as Southern Kayin and Northern Kayin. Moreover, again,
the Kayin who dwell in the eastern parts of the Sittaung
River and the western parts of the Sittaung River would also
living in the plane land is called Paku Kayin and other on
the mountains and hillsides are called Sakaw Kayin. Most of
Kayin men are fond of their traditional boxing and Sakaw
Kayin men are the good hunters. Pha An, Hlaing Bwe, Kawtgoon
Cave, Bayint Nyi Cave, Wepyan Cave, Phayone Cave and Saddan
Cave are the major attractions of the Kayin State.
Chin people are the same group of Tibeto-Burman like Bhamar
people. Despite the entire Chin tribal groups came from Kuke
major ethnic group, there are 27 different Chin tribes.
There are 44 different dialects used in Chin social
environment. The land of Chin races lies northwards of
Rakhine State and many Chin tribes have settled at the
various parts of the Chin State. The women of this tribe
tattoo their faces and some parts of the bodies with fine
blue lines in elegant patterns, saying their ancestors did
it to prevent marrying tribes to carry off the beautiful
women. However, the lines enhance the structure of their
faces and make them even more alluring. Chin people comprise
Tetain Chin, Palet Wa Chin, Falang Chin, Matupe Chin, Mindat
Chin, Kanpetlet Chin and Kabaw Chin. Most of them are
and animists and only 2 percent of the entire Chin
population is Buddhists.
Between birth and death, they live on their mountains,
hunting animals and growing plants. And then they love music
and dance. The most important of their living are silkworm
firms for economic products.
The 2.4 percent of the entire population of Myanmar are
Mon. Mon is the one of the most advanced tribes of Myanmar.
Their civilization has been spreading all in the many areas
of Asia. As the trade with Thailand, India and Sri Lanka,
the cultures of those countries were relationship with Mon.
Mon were one of the earliest distinct groups to reside in
moved into Myanmar in 1500 BC. The Mon, one of the ethnic
groups in Southeast Asia and major tribe of Myanmar,
dwelling in an area around the southern Thailand-Burmese
border and lower Myanmar are believed to be around 8 million
people. They strongly retain their culture and language. Mon
people are the introducer of Theravada Buddhism at a very
early stage in their history. There are many places for the
tourism destinations in Mon State such as Kyaikhtiyo (Golden
Rock pagoda), Mawlamyine (the capital city of Mon State) and
many other attractions in Mon State.
The Rakhine people formerly called Arakanese are a
sub-ethnic group of the western coastal region. They
constitute 4% of Myanmar's entire population. Their culture
is slightly different from the Bhamar. They speak an archaic
dialect of Burmese. The Rakhine have been greatly influenced
by the Indian culture, and traces of Bengali influence
remain in many aspects of Rakhine culture, including its
literature, music, and cuisine.
According to the history of Rakhine, the first
independent Arakan kingdom was established in the fourth
century A.D. A kingdom called Dhanyawady arose in the Arakan
region in the 1st century AD. Situated at the western coast,
it is bordered by Chin State in the north, Magway Division,
Bago Division and Ayeyarwaddy Division in the east, the Bay
of Bengal to the west, and the Chittagong Division of
Bangladesh to the
The capital is Sittwe (formerly known as Akyab). The
remaining ethnic groups are Mro, Khami (Khumi), Kaman
Muslim, Dienet, Marmagri and a few others. The majority of
people are Buddhists. In Rakhine State, there are many
places to visit such as Mrauk U, one of an ancient cities
and Ngapali Beach, which is famous for the un-spoilt
Shan are major ethnic group of Myanmar. The Shan live
primarily in the Shan State of Myanmar and dwell mostly on
the plains of the Shan Plateau, where the Thanlwin River
flows. The capital city of Shan state is Taunggyi and some
major cities are Lashio, Kengtung and Tachileik. Shan are
the oldest branch of the Tai ethnic group known as "Tai
Long", that is "Great Tai". Later Shan immigrants to Laos
and Thailand were called "Tai Noi" which means "Little Tai".
The Shan are traditionally wet-rice cultivators,
shopkeepers, and artisans. Most of the Shan are Theravada
Buddhists and observe their traditional religion, which is
related to animist practices. The Shan language is part of
the Tai languages group of the Tai-Kadai language family,
and is related to Thai and Lao. The southern Shan use the
alphabet based on the Burmese alphabet.
In dark blue jackets and wide-bottomed trousers, the Akha
live in the northeast of Shan State near Kengtung. The
women’s costumes are intricately embroidered jackets and
elaborate silver jewelry. Akha are known for their wonderful
colored handicrafts and clothing. Their carved wooden gates
offer their guardian spirits. Every Akha village is slightly